1. Create VRM from Humanoid 3D Models

2020-08-25 17:10:30 +0900 +0900
Last modified September 16, 2020: humanoid (1578ecb)

A VRM file can be made by UniVRM, which is a standard implementation of VRM in Unity. Before we dive into the details, let’s take a look at 4 core steps for making a VRM file:

  1. Import a 3D model and UniVRM into a Unity project. Set up/adjust the model’s materials, etc.
  2. Export the 3D model as VRM in Unity (Model Normalization)
  3. Import the VRM file into the Unity project and customize the settings such as license, spring bone, expression, eyelook, first-person.
    • To make sure customized settings (e.g. facial expression) are working, check your model in play mode
  4. Export the 3D model as VRM again. Now your VRM model is all set.

Briefly speaking, a humanoid 3D model can be adjusted and exported as a VRM file in Unity. Once the VRM file is made, it can be imported again to adjust items such as VRM Meta, BlendShape, and others.

Create an empty project in Unity

Create a new project at the start page (New -> Create project).

Import UniVRM package into the created project


Download the latest unitypackage (UniVRM-0.XX) from UniVRM/releases and import it into the current project (Assets -> Import Package -> Custom Package). The imported files will be in ../Assets/VRM, ../Assets/VRMShaders and ../Assets/MeshUtility. To replace UniVRM with a newer version, it is recommended to delete the existing VRM, VRMShaders and MeshUtility folders (if any) before package import.

Prepare a 3D model that can be handled as “Humanoid” in Unity

Prepare a 3D model that can be imported into Unity such as FBX 3D model. The model’s bones must be set. Also, be sure to use your own model or a model licensed for use as VR avatar. As we will describe later, there are items that describe license information in the VRM file, authors need to fill up those information for their own VRM models.



First, drag the imported humanoid 3D model from the Project window to the Hierarchy window. Click the 3D model in the Hierarchy window then you will see the menu as shown in the Figure above. Click Select and then click Materials. Set Location as Use External Materials (Legacy).


Next, click Rig and set Animation Type as Humanoid, and then click Configure button. A message box will pop up asking whether you want to save the current scene. Click Save to save it.


Now you will see the bone mapping details for this model. Unity will perform auto-mapping for each bone initially. You can check the model’s Body, Head, etc. if an assigned component fits, the leftmost icon will show as green, otherwise it will show as red. In this situation, click rightmost icon for a bone that has the failure bone mapping and select a component you think it fits this bone. To re-map the bones automatically, simply click Mapping in the lowerleft of the interface, click clear and then click Automap.



However, in some cases the bone mapping results are not reasonable even all of them appear as green as shown in the figure below:

We can see the Jaw and Eyes are assigned by the wrong components. As mentioned above, we can fix them by assigning the right corresponding components manually (e.g. eye_light_L will be replaced with eye_L). If the bone mappings are all right, click Done button to proceed to the next step.

Adjust the model data

Now click the model in the Hierarchy window, you shall see sub-components attached to this model. Please click any of them. We are going to check/adjust the items listed below:

  • Model Position
    • The model should be placed at the origin
  • Model Scale
    • 1.0 = 1m
  • Model Pose
    • The model should face towards +Z(axis) direction
  • Texture(material / shader)

Note that if the materials are not assigned or you want to change them, click the rightmost icon of Element X to select available materials in your computer. There are several parameters that you can adjust rendering effects based on what shader you select. Here we select VRM/MToon as an example as shown below. Please refer to MToon for more information.


Export the model as VRM from menu (model normalization)

After adjustments are completed, select the model in Hierarchy window and export it fromVRM -> UniVRM-0.XX -> Export humanoid.


Enter your name in the Author field and click the Export button. The VRM file can then be created. To easily track this file, it is recommended to name the file like this: “Model_Name_Normalized.vrm”. The file will be saved in the Assets folder by default.

Related Pages about UniVRM export:

vrm export
  • Force T Pose
    • Force the model pose to become T-Pose before removing rotation / scaling.
  • Pose Freeze
    • Whether the rotation / scaling removal processing should be performed. This is the process of normalizing model for conforming to the VRM rules. Please make sure to check the boxes at the first time of use. After this process is done, all the components can work correctly.

Details about model’s T-Pose normalization can be found here.

In the next section, we will introduce how to import and set up VRM file first time.

VRM - humanoid 3d avatar format for VR